The History of Big Data: From BC to AD

Big data may be the big buzzword of our time, but the concept goes back hundreds of years.

By definition, big data refers to any data sets that are too large or complex to be easily dealt with. In the 1600s, John Graunt, the father of modern demography, also worked with huge, overwhelming amounts of data about the population of London. 

But it all starts with data collection, and we know this began millennia earlier with the practice of census-taking. 

Hunting and gathering (of data)

A census is basically a way of gathering information on a population, and it’s not restricted to people. The earliest known census was conducted in Babylon in about 3800BC. Records suggest that the census counted the numbers of people and livestock, along with quantities of butter, milk, honey and vegetables.

These numbers were recorded on clay tablets although unfortunately, none of the raw data has been preserved. The Daily Telegraph muses that it could be because “the Babylonians probably sent the tablets through the equivalent of clay shredders to make sure their privacy was protected!”

The Bible also relates several accounts involving censuses, the most well known being the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem where Mary and Joseph had gone for a Roman census. 

Censuses were used by the ancient Romans solely for the purpose of determining taxes. A shame they didn’t do more with the data – because maybe they could have used it to predict the eventual downfall of the Roman Empire! 

Data of the dead

In the early 1600s, a London hatmaker named John Graunt tapped into overlooked data sources to produce remarkable insights about life, health and mortality in his city. 

He started studying death records that had been kept by London parishes and compiled fifty years of data into his book, Natural and Political Observations Made Upon the Bills of Mortality. This is also the first known table of public health data, and its timely arrival coincided with the waves of bubonic plague that were sweeping the region.

His report painted a vivid picture of how Londoners lived and died, and he was the first person to give an estimate of the city’s population. He even predicted the percentage of people who would live to each successive age and their life expectancy year by year. But the data he collected was not always thorough or accurate – for instance, Graunt observed that syphilis was often covered up as the cause of death. 

All these records were publicly available but before Graunt, no one had thought about aggregating and analyzing the information in this way. His work helped to surface valuable insights that would have been instrumental for the city in mapping disease outbreaks and making better decisions. 

AD: The rise and rise of alternative data

Fast forward to present day, when the world is practically drowning in data. Yet we are meaningfully using only a fraction of it.

Businesses, investors and research firms are mostly guided by traditional data – that is, the usual government or company-issued data such as earnings and economic reports. But the frequency and depth of such data are often insufficient for identifying opportunities and emerging trends. That’s why more are turning to data outside the traditional realm, that is ‘alternative data’. 

It’s growing fast, with the number of alternative data providers tripling in the last three years alone. But the concept itself isn’t really new. 

There’s an oft-told tale about Walmart founder Sam Walton who would count cars in parking lots as a barometer of business, and once was so absorbed in the task that he crashed his car into the back of a Walmart truck. Now this can be done more easily and at scale with satellite imagery. But the moral of the story is that patience isn’t necessarily a virtue when it comes to business or investing – after all, why wait for the quarterly sales report when you can monitor foot traffic or point-of-sale purchases in real time? 

At its essence, alternative data is any data that is under the radar and underutilized. This data doesn’t need to be exotic or complicated. You could say that over 300 years ago, Graunt was also tapping into alternative data by examining mortality records.

While Graunt had to crunch through all this data manually, we now have the ability to process vast amounts of complex information pretty quickly. That enables businesses and investors to glean insights faster so that they can act on them before their competitors do. 

But there is one issue Graunt would have run into today…

What syphilis can tell us about privacy

As Graunt had astutely observed that syphilis deaths were likely under-reported due to social stigma, people suffering from the venereal disease in that era probably wouldn’t have been thrilled about such information being exposed. 

We live in a pro-privacy world now, where high-profile scandals have made consumers increasingly distrustful of companies handling personal data. Ensuring data privacy and security should rightly be a top concern for every company. 

It is for this reason that a clear and hard distinction must be made between personal data and non-personal data. While it is legally and morally wrong to expose an individual suffering from syphilis, there’s a huge public benefit in tracking and aggregating anonymized cases. In the US, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasizes the importance of national syphilis surveillance to understand how it spreads so it knows how to focus prevention efforts.

While most companies may not be dealing with matters of public health, it’s imperative that they handle their customers’ data with just as much sensitivity. Suburbia offers point-of-sale transaction data but we make sure our data sets are stripped of all personal details to begin with. This means we take it one step further than simply anonymizing the data – it’s not just about masking John Doe’s identity, but leaving any demographic information out completely.

The future of data

More businesses will find ways of harnessing the treasure trove of underutilized insights hidden in plain sight all around us. The Internet of Things means that the variety of data available to us will grow exponentially. 

In turn, this data will become more accessible as our ability to harvest usable information from big data improves by leaps and bounds with advancements in AI and machine learning.

At the same time, the growing privacy movement will shake up the advertising practices and business model of many companies. But with constraints comes creativity and new inputs for decision-making.

This will drive more companies to embrace and leverage alternative data. If investors are able to use it to generate higher stock returns, why can’t companies use it to improve their operations and grow their business? 

Ultimately, alternative data won’t be so ‘alternative’ in the future, as data becomes the next frontier for competition. Those who are able to tap into new sources to generate insights will be the victors in this brave new world awash with data – and those who fail will end up victims of their own complacency, much like the ancient Romans.

Suburbia Goes to Japan: A Note from the CEO

The first Dutch ship arrived in Japan in the 17th century. It was called De Liefde, meaning love. Its arrival led to such strong links that, between 1639 and 1853, the Netherlands was the only European country allowed to trade with Japan. 

This trade was not only in physical goods, but in art, culture and knowledge. This knowledge sharing continues to this present day – in the shape of data.


As a data company, this special historical relationship between both nations sprang to my mind in September, when I was informed that Suburbia had become the first ever Dutch startup to be selected for Fintech Business Camp Tokyo – an accelerator program run by the office of the mayor of Tokyo along with Accenture Japan.


Over the last few months, I have spent a lot of time understanding Tokyo and eating my weight in kashiage and yakiniku. Apart from gaining weight, I have also gained new perspectives into the Japanese market and made many valuable connections within the industry. 


Many say it’s not easy for foreign firms to crack the Japanese market because of complex bureaucracy and cultural factors. This is precisely why the support of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) and Accenture has been so valuable, in providing us with access to top domestic companies and counseling us on things big and small, including the intricacies of Japanese business etiquette


We recently concluded the program with a pitch in front of members of TMG, media and some of Japan’s leading companies. We showed how our Amsterdam-based startup is building innovative technology to solve some of the biggest problems facing both data providers and data users. This technology transcends borders – we can process data from anywhere in the world and transform it into a rich source of insights. 


Japan is interesting for us for several reasons. There is a growing shift from a cash-focused economy to contactless and payment apps, which will generate a flood of raw data. If collected and structured, properly and safely, this data has tremendous value. The Japanese government has already proposed policies to encourage the sharing of this ‘industrial data’ and companies are beginning to take notice. As the use of alternative data in investment decisions rises rapidly, Japan is uniquely positioned to leverage new data and use it to make better decisions for its large pension funds and asset management industry.


While we have been working with mostly early adopters based in Europe and the US, we are witnessing the global rise of alternative data, especially from the frontlines of great initiatives like the Fintech Business Camp. With four hundred years of history between the Netherlands and Japan, we hope to contribute to four hundred more.

-Hamza Khan, CEO, Suburbia

Is Europe buying into Black Friday?

Singles’ Day may be the biggest shopping day of the year but it has yet to really catch on in Europe. 

Meanwhile, Thanksgiving may be a uniquely American holiday but Plymouth, Massachusetts’ oldest celebration is going global. The shopping frenzy that takes place the day after the turkey has been gobbled up, otherwise known as Black Friday, has spread across the Atlantic and beyond. 

Now, Black Friday is seen as the biggest pre-Christmas sales event by retailers the world over. While turkey and pumpkin pie may not be universal, the love of scoring a good deal transcends borders.

Black Friday was virtually unheard of in Europe before the 2010s. Then the likes of Amazon aggressively marketed it and soon, other merchants started vying for a share of consumers’ wallets with tempting deals.

But is it possible that some are growing tired of participating in the retail madness and are jumping off the bandwagon?

In France, Black Friday first made its arrival felt in 2012 but it did not take off immediately. The French had to get used to the idea of shopping outside the legally designated summer and winter sales periods. But it has grown rapidly in recent years.

As consumers tend to go for higher value products on Black Friday, we looked at our luxury cosmetics and fragrances data to see the retail event’s impact on sales in France over the years.

Based on our data, 2017 appeared to be a breakout year for Black Friday in France, with a whopping 134% year-on-year (YOY) growth in sales. However, in 2018, YOY growth paled in comparison at 20%. What does this mean for Black Friday in Europe’s third largest economy?

Black Friday: Still Relevant?

There could be any number of reasons why Black Friday sales just aren’t growing as fast as they used to. While sales activity continues to peak on the day itself, retailers now tend to run promotions over an extended period to ease pressure on their operations. There is Cyber Monday, although the growth in ecommerce sales on Black Friday have blurred the lines between both.

In addition, the French have long loathed cultural imports, so it was perhaps no surprise when local online merchants developed their own response to Black Friday. “French Days” was launched last spring but it was so successful that it was held twice this year. With the most recent promotions in late September this year, less than two months before Black Friday, this could possibly be spreading consumer dollars thinner. 

But there could be another force at play.

It was recently reported that more than 200 brands in France have decided to boycott the upcoming Black Friday sales as a response to the negative impact of rampant consumerism on the planet. Instead, they are calling for “reasonable consumption” in a bid to “make Friday green again”.

Are these retailers just losing out to competitors during this highly anticipated shopping event? Or is interest in Black Friday hitting a plateau in France?

Let’s see if Black Friday will be bigger than last year, as some predict. Or if the patriotic French prefer to embrace “French Days”, while starting a more sustainable tradition with “Green Friday”. 

Dior Sauvage: Smells Like Trouble

It was Dior’s first new cologne launch in a decade. Introduced in 2015 with a campaign fronted by Johnny Depp, it was destined to be a blockbuster, much like one of the Hollywood icon’s films.

The campaign was struck by unfortunate timing though, as it came hot on the heels of Depp’s divorce settlement with actress Amber Heard. The long and bitter divorce was tabloid fodder as Heard had made allegations of domestic abuse against Depp, who flatly denied the charges. Despite the eventual settlement, people took to Twitter to call Dior’s ad “tasteless” and “tone-deaf”. 

A couple years later, Depp was embroiled in another lawsuit with his former business managers. 

However, the spate of bad publicity associated with its ambassador did not seem to throw customers off the scent.

In fact, it has gone on to become one of the world’s best-selling fragrances. According to GQ, Sauvage has overtaken Chanel’s Coco Mademoiselle as the UK’s most popular scent. No mean feat, considering the women’s scent market in the country is 50% bigger than the men’s. It was even one of only two product lines credited for the momentum of luxury giant LVMH’s €6.08 billion perfumes and cosmetics business group in its most recent financial report.

Latest controversy

In August, Dior faced yet another backlash following the launch of its latest ad campaign with Depp. 

This time, it was widely criticized not for the off-screen antics of its spokesperson – but for cultural appropriation and insensitivity in the way it portrayed Native Americans in its 60-second commercial. The French fashion house promptly pulled the plug on the campaign. 

It is unclear how Dior will continue promoting the line now that the ad has been yanked right before the critical holiday season. But some say the ongoing debate on social media may be even good for sales since it keeps the product in the spotlight. Depp has defended the video, while Dior released statements about how the ad was made in consultation with the non-profit, Americans for Indian Opportunity.

The continued momentum of LVMH’s perfumes business hinges on the performance of flagship brands like Dior. According to a recent report by Morgan Stanley, Dior entered the realm of the mega brands in 2018, becoming luxury’s sixth player to attain sales over €5 billion. But the most interesting fact in the report was that over a third of Dior’s sales are derived exclusively from – you guessed it – cosmetics and fragrances.

So can Sauvage continue to be a key sales driver for Dior’s fragrances portfolio?

Running out of steam?

To forecast the performance of Sauvage, we took a look at our proprietary dataset tracking daily (anonymized) sales of luxury cosmetics and fragrances. And what we uncovered in our data tells a different story – it seems Sauvage sales have been slipping on key occasions before the latest controversy even erupted.

Some of the key moments for fragrance sales are around Valentine’s Day, Father’s Day and Christmas Day, so we focused on those periods. While sales of Sauvage around Valentine’s Day have seen year-on-year (YOY) growth every year since 2016, they declined for the first time this year. Father’s Day sales were even more dismal this year. 

In fact, YOY growth has turned negative. After a steep climb in recent years that peaked in early 2018, it appears Sauvage has lost some of its earlier momentum. It could also be a sign that Sauvage is on the wane, somewhat like Depp’s career…

Perhaps the new campaign was meant to reignite interest and revitalize sales. Now that has been scrapped, how will Sauvage do this holiday season? And more importantly, does Sauvage still hold the key to the long-term growth of Dior? 

Only time – and data – will tell.

Learn more about our luxury cosmetics and fragrances dataset here.

Suburbia launches luxury cosmetics dataset for investment insights

29 October 2019, Amsterdam – Suburbia, a technology company specializing in alternative data solutions, has introduced its second offering that leverages millions of anonymized transactions to predict the performance of luxury brands in the beauty and personal care space.

Suburbia has partnered with companies in the payments ecosystem to collect receipt line-level data from multiple sources. This unique dataset tracks sales of luxury cosmetics and fragrances in France, the largest market for this segment in Europe and the fourth largest in the world, with a total value of three billion euros. 

“France is not just a large market for the world’s biggest luxury companies and beauty brands, it is also a trendsetter and tastemaker,” said Hamza Khan, CEO of Suburbia. “By collecting accurate sales across the country, our product is a powerhouse for what is popular in France, and a strong indicator of what will be popular globally.”

The new dataset delivers daily signals on publicly listed and private companies, including key players in the industry such as L’Óréal Luxe, Coty Inc., Estée Lauder Companies and LVMH. It tracks over 100 brands including Dior, Chanel, Hermès, Hugo Boss, Kenzo, Lancôme and YSL. The data product has been built specifically for investors who want granular insights into how these companies’ main revenue drivers are performing, whether by brand, category or product.

According to a recent report, among all luxury goods sectors, cosmetics and fragrances have witnessed the highest sales growth.* The market is expected to grow annually by 3.3% (CAGR 2019-2023).**

Suburbia’s proprietary technology is capable of processing millions of consumer purchases. No personal information is ever used or shared in the process. This data is updated on a daily basis with a one-day lag, so investors can get up-to-date insights for making decisions faster.

Other highlights of this product include:

  • Ticker mapping to easily see performance of publicly traded companies over time
  • Granularity such as EAN, brand name, item pricing, product category, basket composition, geography and time of transaction. Anonymized merchant ID is provided in order to compare same-store or like-for-like sales.
  • Historical coverage, with over three years of data available for backtesting

*  Deloitte, Global Powers of Luxury Goods, April 2019
** Statista, 2019